Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic used to treat an irregular heartbeat

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Amiodarone scientist Chagas discovered Trypanosoma cruzi in the intestines of flying bugs, and in 1909 he described a human disease in which he identified a trypanosome (see), identical to that found by him in a bug. The disease is widespread in most countries of South and Central America. According to the Pan American Health Organization (1974), in Latin America from 1969 to 1972, about 10 million patients with Chagas disease were registered. 1 Etiology 2 Epidemiology 3 Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy 4 Clinical picture 5 Treatment 6 Prognosis 7 Prevention.

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This stage of Chagas disease can occur without clinical manifestations (latent) or is characterized by changes in the heart. Patients complain of shortness of breath, palpitations, pain in the region of the heart. The boundaries of the heart are expanded, the tones are muffled, the pulse is small filling, blood pressure is reduced, splitting of the II tone is noted at the apex of the heart and on the pulmonary artery, systolic murmur at the apex of the heart and at the lower edge of the sternum, extrasystole. Pronounced changes on the ECG in the form of intraventricular conduction disturbances are characteristic.

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Heart changes are one of the main manifestations of the acute stage of the disease. Its boundaries are expanded, the tones are muffled, the gallop rhythm is sometimes heard (see Gallop rhythm). In severe cases, heart failure develops and increases. The most severe manifestation of the acute stage of the disease is meningoencephalitis, almost always fatal. Orchitis (see), epididymitis (see) and mumps (see) are described from lesions of other organs. The acute stage lasts 4-5 weeks, after which the clinical manifestations disappear, and the process takes on a chronic course.

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With the introduction of the parasite through the mucous membrane of the eye, the primary affect manifests itself in the form of the so-called Romagna symptom complex: conjunctivitis, swelling of the eyelids, with an increase in regional lymph nodes. The liver, spleen and peripheral lymph nodes are enlarged. In the blood - leukocytosis with lymphomonocytosis.

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The incubation period is 5-14 days. The acute stage of Chagas disease occurs predominantly in children aged 1 to 5 years and adults traveling to areas endemic for Chagas disease. The disease begins with malaise, chills, headache, muscle pain. The temperature rises to 39-40 °, has a remitting or constant character. The primary affect, which is often formed at the site of trypanosome introduction, resembles a furuncle in appearance, but never suppurates.

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The most dramatic changes are found in the myocardium, liver, intestinechnike, brain. Diffuse myocarditis develops (see). In the future, when the disease passes into the chronic stage, a kind of cardiomyopathy is observed (see), due to damage to the conduction system of the heart.